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Bone Graft also is known as Bone Augmentation is a surgical procedure which stimulates the development of new bone in the place of a missing tooth.
When one or more teeth are missed, the tooth bone in the underlying region begins to recede. Such alleviation in the bone volume leads to bone loss, decrease in gum tissues, etc. It ends in sagging the facial tissues and provides an aged appearance. Moreover, it limits the teeth replacement options to restore the missing tooth or teeth.
Such consequences can be averted with rebuilding the lost bone in that region. Rebuilding the bone is possible with bone graft surgery which is described in this article.
Why bone graft surgery is needed?
It is required for the dental restoration appliances like dentures, dental bridges especially dental implants to get sufficient bone support. If you want to fix an implant tooth, you should have at least 2 mm of bone in the site.
This is because a metallic cylinder is inserted in the bone and it serves as a tooth root. Then an abutment is screwed over the post and crown is mounted over the abutment. The tooth bone should be healthy and strong enough to support the implant post. Otherwise, the fixed implant becomes less durable and cannot last long.
What is the procedure involved in bone graft surgery?
In general, the procedure takes 45 to 90 minutes. An incision is made on the gum surface to access the tooth bone present beneath it.
Then a bone graft material is placed inside the region. Along with the graft substances, some planned membranes are also placed for the bone development process and the place is stitched.
Then the healing period will take around 3 to 6 months. It entirely depends on the type of graft material used for the bone generation. During the healing period, the existing bone in that region integrates with the minerals in the bone graft and develop a new bone. The new bone developed than replace the graft material placed there.
What are the types of graft materials used?
Typically, the dental surgeons utilize 4 types of bone graft materials which can be easily absorbed by our body. The different types of bone grafts include:
- Alloplastic Bone Graft
- Autoplast Bone Graft
It is the tissue or bone taken from an animal and transplanted surgically. This needs to be examined at regular intervals during the healing period as it has chances of rejection.
Alloplastic Bone Graft
This bone graft is also an organic compound but manufactured with synthetic materials. You don’t scare as it may cause harmful effects. The synthetic materials are also rich in calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite and other minerals present in the natural bone. Hence the bone cells can easily be consolidated with the graft and compose a new bone on the graft surfaces.
Autoplast Bone Graft
It is the bone substance taken from your body. The graft material can be taken from any part of the body. It is preferred as it does not have any chances of disease transmission or other risk factors. This is also well-known for higher success rates.
The graft substance is tissue or bone taken from a donor who is a blood relation or closed ones for the sufferer.
Remember that the bone graft material is chosen depending on the factors like the degree of the issue, health condition of the patient and others. The healing period also varies based on the type of bone graft material placed for bone regeneration.
In contrast, the bone grafting procedure is not needed in the cases of fixing small implants like mini dental implants.
Bone Grafting is a minor surgical procedure which can be completed within 1-2 dental visits. You might feel some discomforts like soreness after the procedure but they are common and can be easily treated with medications. The treated person should be careful and need to maintain the diet as per the dental doctor’s advice during the healing period. This is because some food items are capable of intervening the bone development process.